Rose planting and harvesting stages
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Roses are widely used because of their unique properties. edible Roses are offered for sale in the form of rose buds and dried rose petals and extracts. Annually, large quantities of dried rose buds are sold in bulk from rose farms, and dried rose petals are sent to the market for sale. Rose extract is also sent to extraction workshops for sale in the perfume industry. Rose planting and harvesting stages are very effective in the final quality of roses. The best roses are flowers grown organically and chemicals free. Iranian organic rose petals and rosebuds are one of the best organic rose for food and pharmacology industries.
The best climate for growing damask rose
One of the most important factors for the production of quality roses is having a suitable climate and climatic conditions. The birthplace and habitat of damask rose is the ancient land of Iran and the Middle East. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, Iranian roses were exported to India, North Africa and Turkey, and then to Bulgaria, and their cultivation spread.
Countries producing rose petals and rose buds have arid and semi-arid and cold climates and Iran is a very suitable region for growing damask rose. Many cities in Iran, including Kashan, Isfahan, Shiraz, Kerman, Urmia and Khoy have a very suitable climate for growing roses. Rosa damascena is a plant resistant to dehydration, pests and diseases and is obtained with the highest quality product from organic cultivation.
Cultivation of roses
Cultivation of roses involves several stages. Also, important points should be considered in cultivating rose flowers. In this article, these steps and tips will be examined. In order to build a rose farm, first it is necessary to dig pits with a depth and width of 50 cm. The inside of the pit is filled with rotten animal manure along with the farm soil and the planted seedlings are watered immediately.
The simplest method of propagation is cuttings and the most common method of propagation is underbrush. Rooted underbrush is usually separated from the original bush and planted immediately during the dormant season. Although rose can grow well in a wide range of soils, its best performance is in well-drained soils with a pH between 6.5 and 7.5. Damask rose cultivation is possible in foothills and rocky and sloping lands. The distances between the plants should be about 2.5 to 3 meters.
According to the soil test, to maintain fertility and increase flowering, in organic rose cultivation, the use of 30 tons of manure per hectare is necessary to strengthen the soil of rose farm. Animal manure mixed with farm soil is poured into the pits before planting. In the following years, about 5 tons of rotten manure per hectare should be distributed around the bushes.
Irrigation of roses
It is necessary to irrigate after planting roses. In the first year, watering every 6 days leads to rapid growth of seedlings. The most sensitive time of irrigation is the beginning stage of bud in the plant, which must meet its water needs according to climatic conditions. It is better to irrigate in such a way that water is not spilled on the plant (especially during the flower harvest). Therefore, drip irrigation that does not wet the flowers at harvest time is a good method.
Pruning the rose bush
If the rose bushes are left unpruned, they will grow irregularly. These conditions cause multiple branches growing, irregular and unsuitable branches growing and reduce flowering and flower quality. The flowers of unpruned plants are weaker and smaller and of lower quality. Pruning of these plants is done from late summer to early spring.
Pruning is done to remove dry, pest-infested, annoying branches, as well as to prevent the formation of tall branches that make harvesting difficult. Pruning roses will continue flowering in the plant. Flowering is increasing until about 9 to 12 years old. From this age onwards, this trend decreases. Shrubs are cut from the floor as the declining process begins. This leads to balancing and regulating plant growth, stimulating and producing strong and numerous underbrush in rose farm.
Damask rose harvesting
Flower harvest is one of the most important, sensitive and costly factors in producing damask rose. Harvest time of rose buds is from late spring to early summer. Rose flower lasts a little on the branch after opening. If delayed, the color will turn white and fade within 24 hours. Therefore, it is necessary to harvest open flowers daily before sunrise and preferably in cool morning weather.
The best time to pick roses is early in the morning and before sunrise. At this time, rose petals are the most abundant and the petals are very juicy and fresh. The closer we get to noon and the end of the day, the lower the quality of the flowers, and the faster the petals wither and dry out. The heat and direct sunlight cause the petals and buds to wither quickly and lose their fragrance. That is why in rose farms the best time to pick flowers is before sunrise.
In addition, after picking the flowers, they should be kept in the shade and in a cool place as much as possible to moderate the drying process of the petals and the final quality of the petals is the best possible.
As the weather warms, the harvested rose flowers wither quickly. Due to the fact that the flowers are usually stored and compacted, fermentation activities are intensified. To maintain the quality of rose petals, the flowers are picked during the cool hours of the day. This increases the quality of the dried rose petals. The flowers are separated from the petiole. These flowers are placed in bundles and baskets and after weighing, they are poured into sacks.
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